CWE-1391 Detail


Use of Weak Credentials
2022-10-13 00:00 +00:00
2024-02-29 00:00 +00:00

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Use of Weak Credentials

The product uses weak credentials (such as a default key or hard-coded password) that can be calculated, derived, reused, or guessed by an attacker.

Extended Description

By design, authentication protocols try to ensure that attackers must perform brute force attacks if they do not know the credentials such as a key or password. However, when these credentials are easily predictable or even fixed (as with default or hard-coded passwords and keys), then the attacker can defeat the mechanism without relying on brute force.

Credentials may be weak for different reasons, such as:

  • Hard-coded (i.e., static and unchangeable by the administrator)
  • Default (i.e., the same static value across different deployments/installations, but able to be changed by the administrator)
  • Predictable (i.e., generated in a way that produces unique credentials across deployments/installations, but can still be guessed with reasonable efficiency)

Even if a new, unique credential is intended to be generated for each product installation, if the generation is predictable, then that may also simplify guessing attacks.


Modes Of Introduction

Architecture and Design

Applicable Platforms


Class: Not Language-Specific (Undetermined)

Operating Systems

Class: Not OS-Specific (Undetermined)


Class: Not Architecture-Specific (Undetermined)


Class: ICS/OT (Undetermined)
Class: Not Technology-Specific (Undetermined)

Observed Examples

Reference Description
[REF-1374]Chain: JavaScript-based cryptocurrency library can fall back to the insecure Math.random() function instead of reporting a failure (CWE-392), thus reducing the entropy (CWE-332) and leading to generation of non-unique cryptographic keys for Bitcoin wallets (CWE-1391)
CVE-2022-30270Remote Terminal Unit (RTU) uses default credentials for some SSH accounts
CVE-2022-29965Distributed Control System (DCS) uses a deterministic algorithm to generate utility passwords
CVE-2022-30271Remote Terminal Unit (RTU) uses a hard-coded SSH private key that is likely to be used in typical deployments
CVE-2021-38759microcontroller board has default password, allowing admin access
CVE-2021-41192data visualization/sharing package uses default secret keys or cookie values if they are not specified in environment variables
CVE-2020-8994UART interface for AI speaker uses empty password for root shell
CVE-2020-27020password manager does not generate cryptographically strong passwords, allowing prediction of passwords using guessable details such as time of generation
CVE-2020-8632password generator for cloud application has small length value, making it easier for brute-force guessing
CVE-2020-5365network-attached storage (NAS) system has predictable default passwords for a diagnostics/support account
CVE-2020-5248IT asset management app has a default encryption key that is the same across installations
CVE-2012-3503Installation script has a hard-coded secret token value, allowing attackers to bypass authentication
CVE-2010-2306Intrusion Detection System (IDS) uses the same static, private SSL keys for multiple devices and installations, allowing decryption of SSL traffic
CVE-2001-0618Residential gateway uses the last 5 digits of the 'Network Name' or SSID as the default WEP key, which allows attackers to get the key by sniffing the SSID, which is sent in the clear

Vulnerability Mapping Notes

Rationale : This CWE entry is a Class and might have Base-level children that would be more appropriate
Comments : Examine children of this entry to see if there is a better fit



Researchers Out Default Passwords Packaged With ICS/SCADA Wares
Kelly Jackson Higgins.


ICS Alert (ICS-ALERT-13-164-01): Medical Devices Hard-Coded Passwords


OT:ICEFALL: The legacy of "insecure by design" and its implications for certifications and risk management
Forescout Vedere Labs.


Randstorm: You Can't Patch a House of Cards


Name Organization Date Date Release Version
CWE Content Team MITRE 2022-10-06 +00:00 2022-10-13 +00:00 4.9


Name Organization Date Comment
CWE Content Team MITRE 2023-01-31 +00:00 updated Applicable_Platforms, Demonstrative_Examples, Observed_Examples, References
CWE Content Team MITRE 2023-04-27 +00:00 updated References, Relationships
CWE Content Team MITRE 2023-06-29 +00:00 updated Mapping_Notes, Taxonomy_Mappings
CWE Content Team MITRE 2024-02-29 +00:00 updated Observed_Examples, References
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